Digital Athenaeus
G. Kaibel: Athenaei Naucratitae Dipnosophistarum libri 15

Book 3

Paragraph
65

ἴδιον δʼ ἐστὶ γένος καράβων τε καὶ ἀστακῶν ἄλλο, ἔτι δὲ καρίδων. τὸν δʼ ἀστακὸν οἱ Ἀττικοὶ διὰ τοῦ ο ὀστακὸν λέγουσι, καθάπερ καὶ ὀσταφίδας. Ἐπίχαρμος δὲ ἐν Γᾷ καὶ Θαλάσσᾳ φησίν· κἀστακοὶ γαμψώνυχοι. Σπεύσιππος δὲ ἐν βʹ Ὁμοίων παραπλήσιά φησιν εἶναι τῶν μαλακοστράκων κάραβον, ἀστακόν, νύμφην, ἄρκτον, καρκίνον, πάγουρον. Διοκλῆς δʼ Καρύστιός φησι· καρῖδες, καρκίνοι, κάραβοι, ἀστακοὶ εὔστομα καὶ διουρητικά. κολύβδαιναν δʼ εἴρηκεν Ἐπίχαρμος ἐν τοῖς προεκκειμένοις, ὡς μὲν Νίκανδρός φησι, τὸ θαλάσσιον αἰδοῖον, ὡς δʼ Ἡρακλείδης ἐν Ὀψαρτυτικῷ, τὴν καρῖδα. Ἀριστοτέλης δʼ ἐν πέμπτῳ ζῴων μορίων τῶν μαλακοστράκων ὀχεύονται, φησί, κάραβοι, ἀστακοί, καρῖδες καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα, ὥσπερ καὶ τὰ ὀπισθουρητικὰ τῶν τετραπόδων. ὀχεύονται δὲ τοῦ ἔαρος ἀρχομένου πρὸς τῇ γῇ (ἤδη γὰρ ὦπται ὀχεία πάντων τῶν τοιούτων), ἐνιαχοῦ δὲ ὅταν τὰ σῦκα ἄρχηται πεπαίνεσθαι. γίνονται δʼ οἱ μὲν κάραβοι ἐν τοῖς τραχέσι καὶ πετρώδεσιν, οἱ δʼ ἀστακοὶ ἐν τοῖς λείοις, ἐν δὲ τοῖς πηλώδεσιν οὐδέτεροι. διὸ καὶ ἐν Ἑλλησπόντῳ μὲν καὶ περὶ Θάσον ἀστακοὶ γίνονται, περὶ δὲ τὸ Σίγειον καὶ τὸν Ἄθω κάραβοι. εἰσὶ δʼ οἱ κάραβοι μακρόβιοι πάντες. Θεόφραστος δʼ ἐν τῷ περὶ τῶν φωλευόντων τοὺς ἀστακοὺς καὶ καράβους καὶ καρῖδας ἐκδύεσθαί φησι τὸ γῆρας.

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